The fourth grade has recently completed the Castle Project. In tandem with our study of William the Conqueror and the Crusades, fourth grade students worked in groups to research the history and purpose behind castle construction during the Middle Ages. Students received a listing of suggested materials and required elements for the castle construction. Each group consulted several sources provided from the classroom and school libraries and made notes on specific details to include in their project. They also drew upon information from class discussions and class texts. Students had two history class periods for research and another to create a detailed aerial view /floorplan of their castle to submit for approval. Once approval was granted, students developed a materials list and assigned group members to provide various items. Construction began on the fourth day of the project. Each group was provided with four Pringle chip cans and brought all other materials from home, including an appropriately sized box and platform, glue gun, tempera paint, rocks, construction paper, small chains, and popsicle sticks. After three days of construction, students mixed sand with paint to cover the exterior walls of the castle. When all the details of towers, moat, portcullis, drawbridge, and gate were completed, students began to work on their oral presentations for the class. The fourth grade classroom became an active construction site for two weeks in order to provide students with a hands-on opportunity to engage history as they studied one the primary defense system of the Middle Ages.